The Government of Balochistan (GOB) and UNDP are currently partnering on a joint initiative, titled Area Development Programme Balochistan phase II, to improve the livelihoods of rural poor in Balochistan. This initiative is an up-scaled phase of a pilot initiative which was implemented through 1999-2005. The Area development programme Balochistan Phase II (ADPB II) is a community driven area development project funded by UNDP, Government of Balochistan (GOB) and local communities also partially supported by WFP and AusAID for specific interventions. It is currently scheduled to conclude in December 2012. The Project is being implemented by Planning and Development Department of Government of Balochistan.
The objective of the project is to contribute to poverty reduction in the project target union councils through community based interventions to improve crop and livestock productivity, conserve natural resources, improve communities’ access to market and services, support income generation activities, and strengthen women’s role in development. The project’s target area covers 9 district of Balochistan including Musakhail, Loralai, Qila Saifullah, Ziarat, Pishin, Quetta, Mastung, Kalat and Khuzdar.
As the project is nearing its completion, the Government of Balochistan has requested UNDP to support the Government in building on the achievements of ADPB. In this regard, the GOB and UNDP are jointly fielding a project formulation mission. The mission will comprise of two experts; a project formulation / management expert and a livelihoods specialist. The project formulation expert will lead the process whereas the livelihoods specialist will serve as mission member. UNDP and GOB officials may also be part of the project formulation mission.
DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN BALOCHISTAN: MDGS STATUS
While Pakistan as a whole is lagging behind on most of the MDGs, the situation in Balochistan is worst-off. The headcount poverty in 2001-02, was 48%, which was 15% higher than the national average. In 2005-06, this ratio increased to 50.9% against the national average of 22.3 percent. The proportion of underweight children under 5 years was 43% in 2005-06 which was 5% above the national level. Similarly, the target of universal primary education is 13% behind the national average. The literacy rate (45%) is 12 percentages below the national literacy rate.
There exist wide gender disparities. In 2008/09, the GPI for primary education was 0.58 for the province which is 0.26 points below the national level of 0.84. The share of women in wage employment in the non – agricultural sector in Balochistan is poorer than in other provinces. In 2009, the female labor force participation (including the agricultural sector) was recorded at 11.4% as compared to 66.2% for males. Likewise progress on reducing child mortality is 36% below the national average. Progress against the other MDGs targets is also lower than that in other provinces.
OPPORTUNTIES FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
In terms of economic growth, Balochistan has the slowest economic growth rate with worst infrastructure, worst water crisis and weakest fiscal base. However, nature has blessed Balochistan with abundance of natural resources. It has huge reserves of coal, copper, chromite, barites, sulphur, marble, iron ore etc. Except coal and copper, most of these minerals have remained unexplored for various reasons. Balochistan is the second major supplier of natural gas in Pakistan. It is generously bestowed with natural resources that provide vast rangeland for cattle and other livestock. Its southern border makes up about two-thirds of the national coastline, giving access to a large pool of fishery resources. The province is ideally situated for trade with Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf countries. Over the last four decades, the province supplied cheap natural gas to Pakistan's economic centers, supporting the country's industrialization. Huge Biodiversity is another unique resource of Balochistan province.
Additionally, Balcohistan has the highest number of livestock (small ruminants) in Pakistan. The province is the main producer of fruits especially apples and grapes. It has diverse land terrain ranging from snow filled mountains in the northern part to vast deserts in the south. Gawadar, a deep-sea port, is another precious resource for economic growth in the province and the country as a whole. The port has the potential to serve as a storage and distribution centre for transit trade from Central Asia and Western China, transshipment cargo of the region and domestic freight.
The 7th National Finance Commission (NFC) award, which has increased the share of provinces from 47.5% to 57.5% and has included the inverse population density as one of the criteria for resource distribution, will provide more resources from the federal divisible pool to Balochistan. Similarly the 18th constitutional amendment, which has devolved a number of ministries and functions to the provincial governments, also provides another opportunity for spurring home grown development in Balochistan.
PRIORITZED ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SECTORS
The Government of Balochistan has prioritized the following sectors for investment:
- Livestock; and
TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE LIVELIHOODS SPECIALIST
The Livelihoods Specialist will work under the guidance of the Project Formulation Expert who will lead the process and will be responsible for the development of a PC-1 and project document focusing on poverty reduction and livelihoods improvement. While the geographical focus of the project will be finalized during the course of project development process, the districts, where performance towards MDGs is weaker than other provinces, will remain the main target areas.
The Livelihood Specialist’s main task will be to provide a list of specific and innovative interventions to improve the livelihoods of target population and reduce poverty. More specifically, the Livelihoods Specialist will undertake the following tasks:
· Review, analyze and summarize the key achievements, lessons learned, best practices of ADPB II with regard to livelihoods improvement and poverty reduction.
· In consultation with the Project Formulation Expert UNDP / GOB, undertake “mapping” of the main businesses / income generation activities in the proposed project target districts
· Prioritize businesses / value chains / income generation activities with the highest potential to grow and impact the lives of target populations
· Undertake SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the prioritized enterprises / income generation activities. The findings of the SWOT analysis will guide and inform the contours of the project activities with regard to livelihoods improvement through income generation / enterprise development
· Prepare a concrete list of activities / interventions (along with implementation methodologies) to develop selected enterprises / value chains / income generation activities with clear results and resources frameworks
· Together with the Project Formulation Expert, undertake consultations with key donor and UN agencies to explore opportunities for partnerships, synergies, resource mobilization, coordination
· UNDP is in the process of designing initiative to accelerate progress towards MDGs. The Consultant will therefore keep liaison with the experts / team responsible for preparing MDGs Acceleration interventions to maximize on knowledge base, develop programmatic synergies and avoid duplications
· Provide inputs to the Project Formulation Expert in preparing the PC-1 and Project Document with a clear results framework, project strategy and management arrangements, risks and issues logs and proposed mitigation measures, project steering, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, budget and funding opportunities etc
· Assist the Project Formulation Expert in presenting the draft PC-1 and Project Document to UNDP and GOB for comments, feedback and approval. Make changes as per the feedback from the stakeholders.
· Assist the Project Formulation Expert in presenting the revised PC-1 and Project Document to Economic Affairs Division for comments / endorsement
· Provide inputs to the Project Formulation Expert to finalize the PC-1 and Project Document as per the feedback from all the stakeholders
Key Deliverable of the Consultancy
A Final PC-1 and Project Document will be the main deliverable of this assignment.
The consultancy will be for two months from the date of signing of the contract
To the Project Formulation Expert